We acknowledge and cite the US Department of Health and Human Service and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in the US Abstract: “The total economic cost was an estimated $246 billion in 1992. Alcohol abuse and alcoholism cost an estimated $148 billion, while drug abuse and drug dependence cost an estimated $98 billion. The alcohol estimates for 1992 were similar to cost estimates produced over the past 20 years when adjusted for inflation and population. In contrast, the drug estimates demonstrated a steady and strong pattern of increase. More than $28 billion of the costs resulted from health care expenditures, which consisted of alcohol and drug abuse services and the costs of medical consequences of alcohol and drug abuse. The more than $176 billion costs in productivity effects resulted from premature death, impaired productivity, institutionalized populations, incarceration, crime careers, and victims of alcohol-related crime and drug-related crime. Other effects on society included crime, social welfare administration, motor vehicle crashes, and fire destruction and cost more than $40 billion. Government, private insurance, and victims bore most of the economic burden of alcohol and drug problems. Alcohol abusers and their households bore $66.8 billion of the alcohol-related costs; drug abusers and their households bore $42.9 billion of the drug-related costs. The economic effects of alcohol and drug abuse have increased an estimated 12.5 percent between 1992 and 1995 due to inflation and growth in the population. Tables, figures, footnotes, appended health disorder codes and additional tables, and approximately200 references.” NCJ 182086, 1998, ISBN 0-16-049756-6; http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID=182086
We acknowledge and cite the Associated Press’ Teen pot, alcohol use rising Decade-long decline in drinking, drugs ends, study shows; Alcohol and marijuana use among teens is on the rise, ending a decade-long decline, a study being released Tuesday found. "I'm a little worried that we may be seeing the leading edge of a trend here," said Sean Clarkin, director of strategy at The Partnership for a Drug-Free America, which released the study. "Historically, you do see the increase in recreational drugs before you see increases in some of the harder drugs." The annual survey found the number of teens in grades 9 through 12 who reported drinking alcohol in the last month rose 11 percent last year, with 39 percent — about 6.5 million teens — reporting alcohol use. That's up from 35 percent, or about 5.8 million teens, in 2008. WASHINGTON - 8:27 a.m. ET, Tues., March. 2, 2010.